Vasculature And Innervation Of A Long Bone

 

Vasculature And Innervation Of A Long Bone

 

Most secondary ossification centers appear in other parts of the developing bone after birth; the parts of a bone ossified from these centers are epiphyses . The chondrocytes in the middle of the epiphysis hypertrophy, and the bone matrix (extracellular substance) between them calcifies. Epiphysial arteries grow into the developing cavities with associated osteogenic cells. The flared part of the diaphysis nearest the epiphysis is the metaphysis . For growth to continue, the bone formed from the primary center in the diaphysis does not fuse with that formed from the secondary centers in the epiphyses until the bone reaches its adult size. Thus, during growth of a long bone, cartilaginous epiphysial plates intervene between the diaphysis and epiphyses . These growth plates are eventually replaced by bone at each of its two sides, diaphysial and epiphysial. When this occurs, bone growth ceases and the diaphysis fuses with the epiphyses. The seam formed during this fusion process (synostosis) is particularly dense and is recognizable in sectioned bone or radiographs as an epiphysial line. The epiphysial fusion of bones occurs progressively from puberty to maturity. Ossification of short bones is similar to that of the primary ossification center of long bones, and only one short bone, the calcaneus (heel bone), develops a secondary ossification center.

Vasculature And Innervation Of A Long Bone

Vasculature And Innervation Of A Long Bone

Vasculature and Innervation of Bones

Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels. Most apparent are the nutrient arteries (one or more per bone) that arise as independent branches of adjacent arteries outside the periosteum and pass obliquely through the compact bone of the shaft of a long bone via nutrient foramina . The nutrient artery divides in the medullary cavity into longitudinal branches that proceed toward each end, supplying the bone marrow, spongy bone, and deeper portions of the compact bone. However, many small branches from the periosteal arteries of the periosteum are responsible for nourishment of most of the compact bone. Consequently, a bone from which the periosteum has been removed dies.

Blood reaches the osteocytes (bone cells) in the compact bone by means of haversian systems or osteons (microscopic canal systems) that house small blood vessels. The ends of the bones are supplied by metaphyseal and epiphysial arteries that arise mainly from the arteries that supply the joints. In the limbs, these arteries are typically part of a peri-articular arterial plexus , which surrounds the joint, ensuring blood flow distal to the joint regardless of the position assumed by the joint.

Veins accompany arteries through the nutrient foramina. Many large veins also leave through foramina near the articular ends of the bones. Bones containing red bone marrow have numerous large veins. Lymphatic vessels are also abundant in the periosteum.

Nerves accompany blood vessels supplying bones. The periosteum is richly supplied with sensory nerves— periosteal nerves —that carry pain fibers. The periosteum is especially sensitive to tearing or tension, which explains the acute pain from bone fractures. Bone itself is relatively sparsely supplied with sensory endings. Within bones, vasomotor nerves cause constriction or dilation of blood vessels, regulating blood flow through the bone marrow.

Source: Clinically Oriented Anatomy

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