Bone Markings And Formations
Classification of Bones
Bones are classified according to their shape.
- Long bones are tubular (e.g., the humerus in the arm).
- Short bones are cuboidal and are found only in the tarsus (ankle) and carpus (wrist).
- Flat bones usually serve protective functions (e.g., the flat bones of the cranium protect the brain).
- Irregular bones have various shapes other than long, short, or flat (e.g., bones of the face).
- Sesamoid bones (e.g., the patella or knee cap) develop in certain tendons and are found where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the limbs; they protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments.
Bone Markings and Formations
Bone markings appear wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascias are attached or where arteries lie adjacent to or enter bones. Other formations occur in relation to the passage of a tendon (often to direct the tendon or improve its leverage) or to control the type of movement occurring at a joint. Some of the various markings and features of bones are
Markings appear on bones wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascia attach. Other formations relate to joints, the passage of tendons, and the provision of increased leverage.
- Body : the principal mass of a bone; with long bones, the shaft of the bone; with vertebrae, the anterior, weight-bearing portions between interventricular discs.
- Capitulum : small, round, articular head (e.g., capitulum of the humerus).
- Condyle : rounded, knuckle-like articular area, often occurring in pairs (e.g., the lateral and medial femoral condyles).
- Crest : ridge of bone (e.g., the iliac crest).
- Epicondyle : eminence superior or adjacent to a condyle (e.g., lateral epicondyle of the humerus).
- Facet: smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone (e.g., superior costal facet on the body of a vertebra for articulation with a rib).
- Foramen : passage through a bone (e.g., obturator foramen).
- Fossa : hollow or depressed area (e.g., infraspinous fossa of the scapula).
- Groove : elongated depression or furrow (e.g., radial groove of the humerus).
- Head (L. caput ): large, round articular end (e.g., head of the humerus).
- Line : linear elevation, sometimes called a ridge (e.g., soleal line of the tibia).
- Malleolus : rounded process (e.g., lateral malleolus of the fibula).
- Neck : relatively narrow portion proximal to the head.
- Notch : indentation at the edge of a bone (e.g., greater sciatic notch).
- Process : an extension or projection serving a particular purpose, having a characteristic shape, or extending in a particular direction (e.g., articular process, spinous process, or transverse process of a vertebra).
- Protuberance : a bulge or projection of bone (e.g., external occipital protuberance).
- Shaft : the diaphysis, or body, of a long bone.
- Spine : thorn-like process (e.g., the spine of the scapula).
- Trochanter : large blunt elevation (e.g., greater trochanter of the femur).
- Trochlea : spool-like articular process or process that acts as a pulley (e.g., trochlea of the humerus).
- Tubercle : small raised eminence (e.g., greater tubercle of the humerus).
- Tuberosity : large rounded elevation (e.g., ischial tuberosity).
Source: Clinically Oriented Anatomy
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