Gross view of human brain region anatomy lateral external view
The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous system—the main part of two that make up the human nervous system. (The other part, the peripheral nervous system, is made up of nerves and neurons that connect the central nervous system to the body’s limbs and organs.) The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.
The frontal lobes are important for voluntary movement, expressive language and for managing higher level executive functions. Executive functions refer to a collection of cognitive skills including the capacity to plan, organise, initiate, self-monitor and control one’s responses in order to achieve a goal.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex. … The temporal lobe is largely responsible for creating and preserving both conscious and long-term memory. It plays a role in visual and sound processing and is crucial for both object recognition and language recognition.
The cerebellum (“little brain”) is a structure that is located at the back of the brain, underlying the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Although the cerebellum accounts for approximately 10% of the brain’s volume, it contains over 50% of the total number of neurons in the brain. Historically, the cerebellum has been considered a motor structure, because cerebellar damage leads to impairments in motor control and posture and because the majority of the cerebellum’s outputs are to parts of the motor system. Motor commands are not initiated in the cerebellum; rather, the cerebellum modifies the motor commands of the descending pathways to make movements more adaptive and accurate.
The parietal lobe is vital for sensory perception and integration, including the management of taste, hearing, sight, touch, and smell. It is home to the brain’s primary somatic sensory cortex, a region where the brain interprets input from other areas of the body.
The central sulcus is a sulcus, or groove, in the cerebral cortex in the brains of vertebrates. Also called the central fissure, or the fissure of Rolando or the Rolandic fissure, after Luigi Rolando. It is sometimes confused with the longitudinal fissure.
The precentral gyrus is a diagonally oriented cerebral convolution situated in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe. It is located immediately anterior to the central sulcus (fissure of Rolando), running parallel to it.
In the precentral gyrus, large neurons known as Betz cells send efferent axons that terminate on the contralateral motor cranial and spinal nuclei. The functional organization of the precentral gyrus is such that clusters of Betz cells are somatotopically represented by an inverted homunculus. Therefore, head and face regions are innervated by the inferior portion of the precentral gyrus. Conversely, the lower limbs are innervated by the superior portion.
The postcentral gyrus is on the lateral surface of the parietal lobes between the central sulcus and postcentral sulcus. The postcentral gyrus contains the primary somatosensory cortex, a significant brain region responsible for proprioception. This region perceives various somatic sensations from the body, including touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. After stimulation, these peripheral somatosensory receptors relay through the dorsal spinal cord and terminate in the postcentral gyrus where the stimuli are perceived.
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