Terms Of Movement 01
Flexion and extension movements generally occur in sagittal planes around a transverse axis. Flexion indicates bending or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body. For joints above the knee, flexion involves movement in an anterior direction. Extension indicates straightening or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body. Extension usually occurs in a posterior direction. The knee joint, rotated 180° to more superior joints, is exceptional in that flexion of the knee involves posterior movement and extension involves anterior movement. Dorsiflexion describes flexion at the ankle joint, as occurs when walking uphill or lifting the front of the foot and toes off the ground. Plantarflexion bends the foot and toes toward the ground, as when standing on your toes. Extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit— hyperextension (overextension)—can cause injury, such as “whiplash” (i.e., hyperextension of the neck during a rear-end automobile collision).
Abduction and adduction movements generally occur in a frontal plane around an anteroposterior axis. Except for the digits, abduction means moving away from the median plane (e.g., when moving an upper limb laterally away from the side of the body) and adduction means moving toward it. In abduction of the digits (fingers or toes), the term means spreading them apart—moving the other fingers away from the neutrally positioned 3rd (middle) finger or moving the other toes away from the neutrally positioned 2nd toe. The 3rd finger and 2nd toe medially or laterally abduct away from the neutral position. Adduction of the digits is the opposite—bringing the spread fingers or toes together, toward the neutrally positioned 3rd finger or 2nd toe. Right and left lateral flexion (lateral bending) are special forms of abduction for only the neck and trunk. The face and upper trunk are directed anteriorly as the head and/or shoulders tilt to the right or left side, causing the midline of the body itself to become bent sideways. This is a compound movement occurring between many adjacent vertebrae.
As you can see by noticing the way the thumbnail faces (laterally instead of posteriorly in the anatomical position), the thumb is rotated 90° relative to the other digits. Therefore, the thumb flexes and extends in the frontal plane and abducts and adducts in the sagittal plane .
Circumduction is a circular movement that involves sequential flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction (or in the opposite order) in such a way that the distal end of the part moves in a circle. Circumduction can occur at any joint at which all the above-mentioned movements are possible (e.g., the shoulder and hip joints).
Rotation involves turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis, such as turning one’s head to face sideways. Medial rotation (internal rotation) brings the anterior surface of a limb closer to the median plane, whereas lateral rotation (external rotation) takes the anterior surface away from the median plane.
Pronation and supination are the rotational movements of the forearm and hand that swing the distal end of the radius (the lateral long bone of the forearm) medially and laterally around and across the anterior aspect of the ulna (the other long bone of the forearm) while the proximal end of the radius rotates in place. Pronation rotates the radius medially so that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly and its dorsum faces anteriorly. When the elbow joint is flexed, pronation moves the hand so that the palm faces inferiorly (e.g., placing the palms flat on a table). Supination is the opposite rotational movement, rotating the radius laterally and uncrossing it from the ulna, returning the pronated forearm to the anatomical position. When the elbow joint is flexed, supination moves the hand so that the palm faces superiorly. (Memory device: You can hold soup in the palm of your hand when the flexed forearm is sup inated but are prone [likely] to spill it if the forearm is then pron ated!)
Eversion moves the sole of the foot away from the median plane, turning the sole laterally. When the foot is fully everted, it is also dorsiflexed. Inversion moves the sole of the foot toward the median plane (facing the sole medially). When the foot is fully inverted, it is also plantarflexed. Pronation of the foot actually refers to a combination of eversion and abduction that results in lowering of the medial margin of the foot (the feet of an individual with flat feet are pronated), and supination of the foot generally implies movements resulting in raising the medial margin of the foot, a combination of inversion and adduction.
Opposition is the movement by which the pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brought to another digit pad. This movement is used to pinch, button a shirt, and lift a teacup by the handle. Reposition describes the movement of the 1st digit from the position of opposition back to its anatomical position.
Protrusion is a movement anteriorly (forward) as in protruding the mandible (chin), lips, or tongue. Retrusion is a movement posteriorly (backward), as in retruding the mandible, lips, or tongue. The similar terms protraction and retraction are used most commonly for anterolateral and posteromedial movements of the scapula on the thoracic wall, causing the shoulder region to move anteriorly and posteriorly.
Elevation raises or moves a part superiorly, as in elevating the shoulders when shrugging, the upper eyelid when opening the eye, or the tongue when pushing it up against the palate (roof of mouth). Depression lowers or moves a part inferiorly, as in depressing the shoulders when standing at ease, the upper eyelid when closing the eye, or pulling the tongue away from the palate.
Source: Clinically Oriented Anatomy
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