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Skin And Some Of Its Specialized Structures
Skin And Some Of Its Specialized Structures

The skin, the body’s largest organ, consists of the epidermis, a superficial cellular layer, and the dermis, a deep connective tissue layer The epidermis is a keratinized epithelium —that is, it has a tough, horny superficial layer that provides a protective outer surface overlying its regenerative and pigmented deep or basal layer . The epidermis has no blood vessels or lymphatics. The avascular epidermis is […]

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Tension Lines In The Skin
Tension Lines In The Skin

The tension lines (also called cleavage lines or Langer lines) tend to spiral longitudinally in the limbs and run transversely in the neck and trunk. Tension lines at the elbows, knees, ankles, and wrists are parallel to the transverse creases that appear when the limbs are flexed. The elastic fibers of the dermis deteriorate with age and […]

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Skin Ligaments In Subcutaneous Tissue
Skin Ligaments In Subcutaneous Tissue

Skin ligaments (L. retinacula cutis ), numerous small fibrous bands, extend through the subcutaneous tissue and attach the deep surface of the dermis to the underlying deep fascia. The length and density of these ligaments determines the mobility of the skin over deep structures. Where skin ligaments are longer and sparse, the skin is more mobile, such as […]

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Excavated Section Of The Leg Demonstrating The Deep Fascia And Fascial Formations
Excavated Section Of The Leg Demonstrating The Deep Fascia And Fascial Formations

Fascias (L. fasciae ) constitute the wrapping, packing, and insulating materials of the deep structures of the body. Underlying the subcutaneous tissue (superficial fascia) almost everywhere is the deep fascia. The deep fascia is a dense, organized connective tissue layer, devoid of fat, that covers most of the body parallel to (deep to) the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Extensions from […]

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Synovial Tendon Sheaths And Bursal Sacs
Synovial Tendon Sheaths And Bursal Sacs

Synovial tendon sheaths and bursal sacs. A. Synovial tendon sheaths are longitudinal bursae that surround tendons as they pass deep to retinacula or through fibrous digital sheaths. B. Bursal sacs enclose several structures, such as the heart, lungs, abdominal viscera, and tendons, much like this collapsed balloon encloses the fist. A thin film of lubricating fluid between […]

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The Human Body Skeletal System Anterior View And Posterior View
The Human Body Skeletal System Anterior View And Posterior View

The skeletal system may be divided into two functional parts. The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the head ( cranium or skull), neck ( hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae ), and trunk ( ribs, sternum, vertebrae , and sacrum ). The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral (shoulder) and pelvic girdles. Cartilage and Bones The skeleton is composed of […]

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Transverse Sections Of The Humerus
Transverse Sections Of The Humerus

Cartilage and Bones The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones. Cartilage is a resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required—for example, where the costal cartilages attach the ribs to the sternum. Also, the articulating surfaces (bearing surfaces) of bones participating in a synovial joint are capped with articular cartilage that provides smooth, […]

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Bone Markings And Formations
Bone Markings And Formations

Classification of Bones Bones are classified according to their shape. Long bones are tubular (e.g., the humerus in the arm). Short bones are cuboidal and are found only in the tarsus (ankle) and carpus (wrist). Flat bones usually serve protective functions (e.g., the flat bones of the cranium protect the brain). Irregular bones have various shapes other than long, […]

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Development And Growth Of A Long Bone
Development And Growth Of A Long Bone

Bone Development Most bones take many years to grow and mature. The humerus (arm bone), for example, begins to ossify at the end of the embryonic period (8 weeks); however, ossification is not complete until age 20. All bones derive from mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue) by two different processes: intramembranous ossification (directly from mesenchyme) and endochondral ossification […]

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Vasculature And Innervation Of A Long Bone
Vasculature And Innervation Of A Long Bone

Most secondary ossification centers appear in other parts of the developing bone after birth; the parts of a bone ossified from these centers are epiphyses . The chondrocytes in the middle of the epiphysis hypertrophy, and the bone matrix (extracellular substance) between them calcifies. Epiphysial arteries grow into the developing cavities with associated osteogenic cells. The flared part of the diaphysis nearest the […]

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